Why Does Brain Speed Matter, and What Can I Do to Improve It?

brain speedI just saw an article in Scientific American about why brain speed is important, how it decays as we age, and what the effects are on daily life over time. But this is nothing new: we have been talking about brain speed for years!

Some highlights from the article include:

“Studies suggest that the speed of information processing changes with age… such that our thinking speeds up from childhood to adolescence, maintains a period of relative stability leading up to middle age, and finally, in late middle age and onward, declines slowly but steadily.”

“Slowed information processing affects almost every aging adult to some degree, and the line between normal and abnormal is fuzzy. “

While these assertions are certainly true, there is much more to this story. When it comes to brain speed, every millisecond counts. How quickly your brain can process events around you determines how effectively you can react to and remember those events. This has ripple effects on nearly everything you do, like how well you can follow a conversation or remember it, or how fast you react to dangers, surprises, or quickly changing conditions. And yes, your brain speed does indeed decline with age–but the great news is that there is proven evidence that you can you can retrain your brain to speed it up.

Our scientists have designed five brain training exercises that specifically target brain speed, and I like to recommend these to everyone who’s interested in improving their brain. That’s because they train the fundamental machinery of the brain to speed up, which affects every other higher-level brain function. All of the exercises are important individually, and each serves a specific purpose.

Our clinically proven brain speed exercises include:

  • Sound Sweeps is one of my favorite BrainHQ exercises, because despite its seeming simplicity, it can have profound effects on your brain speed! By distilling sound into frequency sweeps (that sound like “woops” or “weeps”) this exercise retrains your brain to recognize sounds quickly and accurately, so that you can easily understand what’s said in the moment and create crystal-clear memories of what you hear.
  • Visual Sweeps is a sight-based version of Sound Sweeps. Instead of hearing frequency sweeps, you perceive and judge different inward and outward motions that get faster and faster. We know that different types of sweeps activate different sets of brain cells (for example, one group might respond to horizontal motion, while a different group responds to vertical motion.) To exercise the highest possible number of neurons, as you move through the levels of Visual Sweeps, they change in various parameters.
  • Fine Tuning is an auditory exercise that helps your brain speed up in its sound processing so you can hear fine distinctions better. It uses sounds that are easily confusable to train the brain to hear these differences more quickly and clearly. This will allow you to stop asking people to repeat themselves and will enable you to remember things you’ve heard more clearly–because when your brain records something in a fuzzy way, you’re less likely to remember it later.
  • Eye for Detail improves your ability to make saccades (rapid eye movements) quickly, and to notice subtle details with each one. We rely on our ability to make saccades accurately and quickly so we can do things like drive safely at night while looking for a street address we’ve never visited. We need those rapid eye movements to be both fast and reliable to stay safe and find what we’re looking for.
  • Hawk Eye works on your visual precision, which helps the brain perceive what you see quickly and accurately so that you can recall it better. Visual precision is what enables you to remember details about what you saw in a movie, at a wedding, when house hunting, while birdwatching, and everywhere else you go.

In honor of Brain Awareness Week, you can also take a 5-minute brain speed test and see if your brain is as fast as mine! Give it a try and see how your brain speed stacks up. If you can’t beat me, it might be time to start your brain speed training in earnest.

(Note: this assessment is not available on mobile devices like iPhone or iPad.)

Brain Science Podcast: Dr. Merzenich Talks with Ginger Campbell About Brain Plasticity

Brain-Science-PodcastWe are big fans of Ginger Campbell, MD’s Brain Science Podcast series – she features fascinating neuroscience luminaries in her in-depth, hour-long interviews, including Norman Doidge, Jeff Hawkins, Sharon Begley, Edward Taub, and many more.

Learn more and listen now >>> Brain Science Podcast: Dr. Merzenich Talks with Ginger Campbell About Brain Plasticity

Posit Science co-founder Dr. Michael Merzenich has been on the Brain Science Podcast once before, but recently revisited the show to discuss brain plasticity and his new book Soft-Wired. If you are interested in brain plasticity, don’t miss this terrific podcast – and be sure to check out Dr. Campbell’s series for more great brain science podcasts.

Landmark Study Shows Benefits of BrainHQ Training Last 10 Years

brainhqI am incredibly excited to announce that the scientists who ran the ACTIVE trial have reported that certain types of brain training—including one of the exercises in BrainHQ from Posit Science—can drive cognitive benefits that last 10 years. The study, published in the Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, is the first to show such long-lasting results from brain training, and confirms that the right kind of brain training can cause significant everyday improvements in daily activities. The story has received major coverage by dozens of news outlets, including The Boston Globe and CBS News.

The large-scale study’s full name is the Advanced Cognitive Training for Independent and Vital Elderly study, and was conducted by scientists around the U.S. They divided 2,832 people over the age of 65 into four groups: a memory training group, a reasoning training group, a speed-of-processing group, and a no-training control. The speed-of-processing group trained on Double Decision, a patented exercise only available in BrainHQ. The other training interventions are not commercially available. Participants trained for about 10 hours in total.

10 years later, scientists re-tested participants. 71% of those in the speed-of-processing group who used Double Decision retained improvements, as did a comparable percentage in the reasoning group. Those in the memory training group did not. These results underscore the fact that not all brain training is created equal: specific types of exercises are more effective than others.

Additionally, participants in all three of the training groups self-reported a better ability to perform everyday tasks—such as shopping and handling finances—compared to those in the no-training control.

The $33.7 million ACTIVE study was paid for by the National Institutes of Health. No one from Posit Science was involved in the study.

With all of the confusing headlines out there, a lot of people still ask me if brain training really works. This study adds to the dozens of published results that show that when it comes to BrainHQ, the science is in: it drives significant, long-lasting, real-world improvements in cognitive function. Every person who wants to get sharp or stay should make BrainHQ a part of their overall brain-healthy lifestyle.

Scientists are enthusiastic about the potential public health impact of these results. As study coauthor Sharon Tennstedt, vice president of New England Research Institutes, told the Boston Globe, “If these training interventions can have that kind of effect on preserving cognitive function, then there is potential for either delaying dementia or kind of attenuating it.” And that, the report suggests, could reduce the number of people affected by functional impairment by 38% by 2050.

Double Decision, the exercise in the ACTIVE study, is available as part of the Attention suite on www.BrainHQ.com. It’s also available in the BrainHQ iPad app.

Soft-Wired: How the New Science of Brain Plasticity Can Change your Life

book-medI’m excited to announce that my brand new book Soft-Wired is now out and available in paperback or Kindle format. This book was a labor of love, and it took me many years and many iterations to say exactly what I wanted, how I wanted to say it. The result is a book that covers much of my life’s work in neuroscience and brain plasticity research.

In the book, I explain how the brain develops and grows throughout youth and early adulthood, and how positive and negative brain plasticity remodel the brain across the lifespan. Then I offer my best advice for how to evaluate your own brain–and how your lifestyle may be changing it for better or worse–and offer clear, specific, scientifically proven advice for how you can rejuvenate, remodel, and reshape your brain at any age. I even share all the things that I do on a daily basis so I can stay sharp in my own life.

I’ve set up a website so you learn more about the book, read an excerpt, learn about upcoming events and appearances, and buy it on Amazon. Kindle Prime members can borrow the Kindle version free, and all Kindle users can download a free sample. For those of you with print disabilities, I want to let you know that we’re working with Bookshare to make the book available for you there, and we hope to have it up soon.

Thanks to everyone who has expressed interest in this book so far – I hope you enjoy reading it as much as I enjoyed writing it.

How You Can Make Your Brain Smarter Every Day

Michael-MerzenichThe following article recently appeared on Forbes.com.

If you’re old enough, you may remember a time, maybe back in your childhood, when someone measured your intelligence and assigned a number to it. I suspect that you have been either proud of that “IQ,” or perhaps a little bit chagrined about it, from that day to this. The general belief back then was that intelligence was a genetic endowment, along with eye color or a propensity for baldness.

We now know this is simply not true. Your brain — every brain — is a work in progress. It is “plastic.” From the day we’re born to the day we die, it continuously revises and remodels, improving or slowly declining, as a function of how we use it. If a brain is exercised properly, anyone can grow intelligence, at any age, and potentially by a lot. Or you can just let your brain idle — and watch it slowly, inexorably, go to seed like a sedentary body.

Most older brains, by the way, are neglected. They are therefore slower and less accurate, and do a poorer job recording useful information and controlling their owners’ actions. The common belief, not so many years ago, was that we older folk were just stuck with these declining faculties. Again, we now know this is simply not true. Your brain can be better, stronger, smarter and safer, starting now.

How We Do It, Every Day
The key is to get “brain exercise” in the right form. We know that we can sustain or even rejuvenate the brain’s accuracy, reliability and problem-solving ability. Most people in midlife and beyond can recover the brain power and adaptive intelligence of those 10, 20 or 30 years younger. As a scientist who has studied brain plasticity and produced neuroplasticity-based tools to help people overcome neurological maladies, I am often asked how we can incorporate the science into our everyday lives and what activities we should engage in to grow brain power.

My wife, Diane, and I have adjusted our own lives based on our knowledge of how lifestyle impacts brain health, so we can have lively brains that last as long as our physical bodies. What do we do?

First, we both spend time at an Internet “brain gym.” AARP and BrainHQ both provide programs scientifically demonstrated to grow or recover age-affected brain power. Most days, I spend 20 to 30 minutes at these exercises on my computer or iPad, because I know this is by far the most efficient way to sustain my neurological health. Just as with exercise at a fitness center, I can work on the computer to improve specific abilities I would struggle to engage as effectively through my everyday activities.

I also begin every morning with a brisk 30- to 60-minute walk. It helps me gain the physical and neurological benefits of walking, but in the process, I also intensely exercise my brain by reconstructing in rich detail, in my mind and memory, the fascinating landscape that I live in. I pay attention, during these walks and throughout my day, to the feelings of my movements and actions. My mantra: Brainless exercise is a lost opportunity for improvement.

As I walk, I try to capture the wonders that come from child-like observation: the feel, the nuances of smell, the visual beauty and detail, the complex and simple sounds, the surprises and the remarkable variation in all of the wondrous things out there in the world. Throughout my day, I try to really listen in conversation; to work hard to understand the music I hear on my radio or at the symphony; to feel my body rise up from that chair or take that next step up the stairs; and in a hundred other ways, to drink in the details of what is actually happening around me.

It’s no idle pursuit. My brain power depends on my retained mastery of analyzing in detail what’s happening in my world and in my mind and body. I must continue to practice to retain my constructive and analytic powers. The goal is to be a master of my environment. My brain was designed to provide me with that power.

Later in the day, I find time to reconstruct my morning walk or other activities in my mind, replaying them forward and backward. I have become a master of the world that I live in. You can, too.

The areas of the brain that control learning and memory require regular exercise. Diane and I engage in a continuous schedule of new learning. I don’t mean just reading new books or acquiring new information through other media. Learning has to be translated into acquiring fundamentally new skills and abilities. We accomplish this by continually developing challenging new avocations and activities. A second mantra: Nothing changes positively in your brain unless it matters to you.

This explains why I have a flower garden, a vegetable garden, an orchard, a vineyard, beehives, a wood shop, a potter’s wheel and a kiln — and can often be found making wine, jam, mustard, bowls, sculptures, cabinets, spaghetti sauce or a kite. It explains the time I devote to ping pong, jigsaw puzzles, Boggle or catch, where fast reactions, adaptive memory and working memory come into play. In every case, I take such activities seriously. My performance and progressive improvements matter to me. The key is continuous challenge.

How Your Social Life Boosts Your Brain
Diane and I also know that every brain needs a regular dose of social exercise. We try to make our home a place people are attracted to, because we know that social interaction is brain food for everybody. We try to be a source of fun and joy in the world, because passing on good spirits is just as rewarding for us and our brains as receiving those precious gifts. The brain machinery involved controls new learning, so a regular dose of positive surprises enables you to grow your brain power.

While you work to grow or restore your brain power, it is also important to sustain an interesting you. You have to continue to read, listen and learn in conventional ways to gather information about what’s happening in our world. It’s not just about keeping in touch. It’s about being better informed and growing as a person that other people find worthwhile. A stronger, more reliable brain, steadily fed fresh information, is bound to make you smarter and more interesting.

What Could Hold You Back
Finally, it’s important to consider what you should not be doing quite so much. Limit the time you spend in front of TV, computer and smartphone screens. Most of us waste far too much time passively receiving information from screens without translating what we see, hear or feel into any useful action. Modern tools allow us to operate without making very much use of our brains. GPS is wonderful, but not as a crutch that keeps you from tracking what you can find in the world you live in. Your Facebook contacts may be terrific, but an actual visit and hug trumps a post every time. We can’t put our brains on the sidelines. They need to be in the game, every day.

Each one of us has the ability to enrich our life and grow our brain power. I strongly encourage you to consider changing your own life, in these and other ways. Take this subject seriously and your brain will thank you!

Michael Merzenich, Ph.D., is a professor emeritus at University of California, San Francisco and is co-founder and chief scientific officer of Posit Science. His latest book, Soft-Wired, focuses on how the new science of neuroplasticity should change how we think.

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Official Trailer: “Smarter Brains” Coming Soon on PBS

I am so excited to share the official trailer for “Smarter Brains” – a new special about the brain that’s coming soon on PBS. The focus of the show is all about intelligence: how we get it, how we can increase it, and how it affects our lives. The show will feature top world brain scientists, including yours truly, and will premiere on PBS stations in August 2013. Check out this preview and let me know what you think!

Large Study Underway To Test Posit Science Exercises in People with Schizophrenia

schizophreniaWe are excited to share this video news report about a schizophrenia study we have been working on for the past few years. The e-CAeSAR Study is being conducted in partnership with the Schizophrenia Trials Network at ten top-tier research centers nationwide. The trial tests a unique online cognitive training program (called “PACR”) designed for people with schizophrenia who wish to improve their brain speed, memory, thinking and people skills. A total of 150 people will be included in this study.

As mental illness expert and psychiatrist Peter Buckley notes in the news story, “It’s to find out, can we retrain the brains of people with schizophrenia using computer games?” He adds, “It’s something people could do in their own time, which is much more powerful than having to come and see a doctor.”

The PACR program is currently for investigational use only; for a list of participating sites near you, please email Cate Stasio.

Study: Posit Science Brain Training Shows Significant, Lasting Gains in Cognitive Function

bhq-ex-double-decision-02I woke up in a cheerful mood this morning because yesterday the results of a scientific study were published and they once again demonstrated that very strong benefits can be achieved through only 10 hours of Posit Science brain training. The cognitive benefits were not just seen in the tasks themselves, but in measures of everyday activities. What’s more, the benefits lasted for at least a year after training. The study found that the more people trained, the better their level of cognitive protection.

This independent study was conducted by Dr. Fred Wolinsky at the University of Iowa, and published in PLoS One. The researchers separated 681 generally healthy people into four groups. One group was given computerized crossword puzzles, while the other three groups did the brain fitness exercise in different settings—on their own at home, in a supervised setting, or in a supervised setting with four extra hours of “booster” training.

Dr. Wolinsky and colleagues found that the people who used Posit Science exercises showed significant gains across speed, attention, working memory, useful field of view, and other executive functions. Benefits were sustained across the board when individuals were evaluated a year later. In fact, statistical analysis indicated that with only 10 hours of exercise, gains in these crucial abilities were going to be sustained in ways that provided years of benefit.

As lead researcher Dr. Wolinsky says, “To most people it is probably surprising that just 10 hours of brain exercise can deliver gains that are measurable at all a year later… you certainly would not expect that from physical exercise. Yet, here we saw gains of 1.5 to 6.6 years across the different standardized tests.” Gains of that magnitude are consistent with other studies of Posit Science exercises published in scientific and medical journals, including gains of about 10 years noted immediately after training.

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While I’m thrilled that news of these results has hit the media with vigor, I will admit to feeling a little frustrated with how this (and related good news) has been reported. In many cases, the reporters don’t mention that it really matters what kind of brain training you do, and they often refer to the exercises used as simply “brain games” or “video games.” These are neither brain games nor video games; they are specific, unique, scientifically proven brain training exercises that have been designed to improve cognition. It’s worth pointing out that this study is yet more evidence that establishes Posit Science as the only brain training company whose exercises have consistently demonstrated large-scale, clinically proven results that generalize to abilities that really matter in everyday life, in a rich variety of normal aging people.

In fact, with this study published, the three largest studies ever conducted on therapeutic brain training have all been conducted using Posit Science exercises. Even if we just look at those three studies (and not the total 60+ other studies that have documented the benefits of our exercises) we have proven these benefits across a sample of almost 4,000 unique and normally aging individuals. Other highly visible companies that claim to have “clinically/scientifically proven results” base those claims on relatively limited short-term outcomes studies conducted with no more than a few dozen people overall. The science is out there for all to see: no other “brain games” company out there comes close to providing strong, independent, peer-reviewed, published, and wide-ranging studies demonstrating clear-cut and measurable results. And that’s because, frankly, we have no interest in offering brain training programs that have not been documented to be effective. We want people to spend their time doing brain training exercises that we know will work.

In this particular study, Dr. Wolinsky noted that the he and the other researchers were somewhat surprised that there was no difference between the group aged 50-64 and the group aged 65 and older in their ability to make large gains. He notes, “This suggests that as with physical exercise, anyone can improve at any age… and, as with physical exercise, why would you wait until you are old to get into better shape?”

I couldn’t agree more.

To try the exercise used in the study, you can get started for free at BrainHQ now.

An Insight for Successful Aging

Many of you may not be aware that Posit Science has launched another wonderful suite of brain fitness exercises, for visual training in BrainHQ, that focuses on improving visual perception, attention, memory/cognition, and fast-responding abilities (see www.positscience.com). We are very proud of this new training program suite. It was created with the help and assistance of a wonderful team of international scientists to address the many problems stemming from the near-universal decline in visual behaviors and abilities that (alas) accompany normal aging.

We are also proud of the fact that exercises have been created in game-like formats that are more engaging and fun than are our earlier training program suites. We believe that these changes will increase the likelihood that every BrainHQ brain fitness ‘student’ will enjoy almost every minute of this valuable training, and that the more effective and compelling ‘rewards’ that occur every time you make even a little progress in improving your brain health will a) more rapidly drive b) stronger and c) more-enduring learning-induced plastic changes in your brain!

BrainHQ targets visual reception accuracy and visual processing speed. It is designed to substantially improve the brain’s reconstruction of, and memory for complex visual scenes…

a) by increasing its capacity for simultaneously representing and interpreting complex visual information analyzed with each visual glance;

b) by substantially increasing the rates and control with which you move your eyes as you scan across the objects that compose the visual scene via multiple fast saccades (eye movements, ‘glances’); and

c) by increasing the accuracy with which you interpret how things might be moving or changing within that scene.

BrainHQ is also designed to help you improve your control of visual attention, and to strengthen the information that you receive from your eyes as you rapidly shift your attention back and forth between the details of a scene or object or printed word, and out to a wider-angle view of the scene or object or printed page.

A goal of BrainHQ training is to strengthen your brain’s ability to identify individual objects or actions within a visual scene. That requires an improvement of its ability to unify those signals that represent a ‘figure’, and that facilely separate it from the ‘background’. It requires an improvement of its ability to keep track of multiple things that can change over time, as your live-action vision rolls over time. And it requires that you improve your ability to keep on task, with focused attention, even while their might be a lot of ongoing visual “noise”, or “distractors”.

A primary goal of BrainHQ is to re-expand your useful field of view back out to the operational range of the average 20-30 year old. As you may or may not be aware, the effective operational field of view in an older individual progressively contracts, with progressively less-competent operations in the periphery of vision normally arising as a very regular function of aging. The vision of the average older citizen operates as if they have “blinders” on!

Many 50-60 year olds, and most 70+ year olds can only operate effectively to identify and rapidly respond to things that are happening pretty directly in front of them, because they simply do not see even-important things that are occurring away from the “center of gaze” (near the center of their focused vision). The contraction of your range of useful vision is a main cause of a sharply increased accident rate in older drivers. It is a main reason why many older individuals literally lose the ability to drive safely (and for the protection of all concerned, lose their driver’s license), and a main cause of falling in older individuals. If you don’t see things coming at you that can result in a collision, or that can knock you on your keister, driving and walking can be a highly risky business!

The expansion of your field of view must be accompanied by an improvement in the speed at which you can react to those now-identifiable things coming at you from all sides! Improving the accuracy and speed of identifying — THEN RESPONDING TO — important things happening in the periphery of vision are main training targets.

In our scientific validation studies, we have been able to show that the average older individual who completes these training programs achieves neurological performance abilities that match the capabilities of the average young (circa 30-35 year old) adult. Impacts on cognition, memory and quality of life derived from using this program suite are the subject of a large controlled trial that is not yet complete; preliminary studies indicate that gains shall be of the order of magnitude of gains achieved with the aural language-targeted Brain Fitness Program, and that gains with BrainHQ shall be substantially additive to gains achieved with the BFP.

One of the five elaborate training programs in this suite has been extensively tested in earlier National Institute of Aging:NIH-supported trials. Called “Useful Field Of View” (UFOV) training, this program was initially applied more than 9 years ago, as a component program of the ACTIVE study, conducted with the help of more than 3,000 older volunteers. Created by Karlene Ball and Dan Roenker, UFOV training was specifically designed to expand the useful field of view without compromising the accuracy of visual reception near the center of gaze, AND to improve the rate of rapid responding to stimuli arising in peripheral vision. More than $20 million in NIA-NIH grants has now been invested in documenting the effects of this training for this large subject population, recorded for up to 5 years after that ten hours of UFOV training was completed in 1998 (10-year follow-ups shall soon be underway!). Those studies have shown that this 10 hours of training was undoubtedly the BEST 10 exercise hours ever spent by these individuals, for ANY reason, because as a consequence:

  1. Trainees were STILL taking in information from a wider field of view, and were STILL more accurate and faster in responding to visual information farther away from the center of gaze more than 5 years after they had completed the 10-hour epoch of UFOV training!
  2. Improvements generalized to improvements in visual memory, and in the use of vision related to everyday tasks and quality of life; again, significant gains could still be recorded 5+ years later!
  3. Trainees had had far fewer automobile accidents over the ensuing 5 years.
  4. Trainees drove their cars more frequently, for longer distances, all across that 5-year epoch.Trainees were more likely to have sustained their independence, and were significantly healthier (had much lower projected health-care expenses).

How could 10 hours have been BETTER spent?!

Other studies led by Professor Ball and colleagues (and by investigators at other university laboratories) have shown that:

  1. UFOV trainees have a much lower probability of having a collision at an intersection, in an at-risk scenario;
  2. the very substantial increase in driving proficiency and safety attributable to this training has been validated in a large trial conducted by the DMV and NTSB in the State of Maryland;
  3. trainees have a much lower probability of having a fall, in an at-risk-for-falling scenario; and
  4. repeating UFOV training once/year results in even greater benefits, in all of the aspects of gain described above.

In the creation of BrainHQ, the new version of the patented UFOV training program originally developed by Drs. Ball and Roenker was created with their guidance and supervision, to make sure that all of the training values recorded in the ACTIVE trial population were assured in these new, more exciting exercises. Drs. Ball, Roenker and colleagues are now evaluating the additional values of the much more extensive training applied in BrainHQ in their University of Alabama at Birmingham and University of Western Kentucky laboratories, with a specific emphasis on documenting gains for personal safety, for driving competence and safety, visual memory/cognition, and for achieving extended impacts on their trainees’ quality of life.

It might be remembered that UFOV training represents about 1/5th of the training values of BrainHQ. It might also be remembered that repeating the many other training tasks encompassed in BrainHQ should help the average older individual sustain the visual aspects of their brain fitness in fine fettle, hopefully far out into the future. In my view, there are not too many things that you can do for yourself that can have a greater value for you than this wonderful program. I recommend it to you, with very high enthusiasm!

Again, for further information, see www.positscience.com

Rust and Kissinger win coveted “Merzie”

After long consideration, a jury (of one, your honorable scribe) has chosen Susanne Rust and Meg Kissinger of the Milwaukee Journal Sentinal as the winners of a prestigious “Merzie” in the category of Investigative Reporting for an article titled “EPA drops ball on danger of chemicals to children”, posted on March 29, 2008. This article exposes the EPA’s programs for determining the safety of chemicals used in the manufacture of children’s products as a fraud. Top EPA adminstrators fill the air with ballyhoo about how their programs protect children while, in fact, the programs they describe are actually unfunded, ineffective, and almost entirely shut down.

This subject is beyond politics. No true conservative or liberal should tolerate this kind of destructive dishonesty. When a science-based government agency comprises its fundamental scientific integrity on matters that are so important for our children and our families, we should ALL be alarmed.

We all know who pays for this kind of passive-aggressive subterfuge. Innocent infants and children do. Their families do, in spades. Society does, in enormous lost possibilities, and in paying the very large bills required to clean up the consequences.

If you’ve followed this blog, you know that growing scientific evidence indicates that chemical toxins delivered into infant and child environments from a number of sources put fetal and baby brains at risk for developmental impairment. In an era when science is screaming for the government to take these issues more seriously, this key government agency has done exactly the opposite. It’s even more galling to see a deliberately blinded, toothless, hobbled Watchdog brag about the great job that they’re doing protecting our babies and kids.

Shame on them.